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Resources for Information about Recent Extinctions

by Mary DeJong


Besides developing our own publications and databases to help disseminate extinction data, we have compiled the resources shown below to augment the CREO research program and assist scientists, educators, students, and policy makers in locating additional information about recent extinctions.

To suggest additions to this list, please contact CREO Research Coordinator, Mary DeJong (dejong@amnh.org).

RECENT EXTINCTION RESOURCES:

  • Databases and CD-ROMs
  • Books, Articles, and Proceedings
    --Global Surveys for Animals and Plants
    --Miscellaneous Regional Information (surveys, etc.)
    --Taxa-specific Information (surveys, etc.)

    --General Information
    --Extinction Rates and Modelling
  • Collection Catalogs
  • Standards for Extinction Assessment
  • Serials
  • Indices and Abstracts
  • Organizations
  • Web Sites


  • Also check out: Tips on Researching Recent Extinctions

    Web-based Databases:

    The Species Survival Commission (SSC), one of the global commissions of the IUCN - The World Conservation Union, compiles information about extinction risks for various plant and animal species of the world. This information is published in IUCN Red Lists, and includes lists of species thought to be extinct. A database version of this list has been made available by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

    The Nature Conservancy will soon provide on their web site a database of (primarily) North American threatened and extinct species.

    CD-ROMs:

    Beacham, W. and World Wildlife Fund (U.S.). 1997. World Wildlife Fund Guide to Extinct Species of Modern Times. CD-ROM. Beacham Publishing, Osprey, FL.

    Wells, R. W. 1996. Wildinfo Australia: Australia's Endangered, Vulnerable and Extinct Fauna. CD-ROM. Good Thinking (Australia) Pty. Ltd., Silverwater.


    Books, Articles, and Proceedings

    --Global Surveys for Animals and Plants

    Balouet, J.C. and E. Alibert. 1990. Extinct Species of the World. Barron's, New York.

    Beacham, W. and World Wildlife Fund (U.S.). 1997. World Wildlife Fund Guide to Extinct Species of Modern Times. Beacham Publishing, Osprey, FL. (This work also exists as a CD-ROM, see above).

    Day, D. 1983. The Doomsday Book of Animals. Viking Press, New York.

    IUCN 1996. 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

    Oldfield, S., C. Lusty, and A. MacKinven (eds). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, World Conservation Press.

    Walter, K.S. and H.J. Gillette (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

    World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1992. Species extinction. In WCMC, Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources, pp. 192-233. Chapman and Hall, London.


    --Miscellaneous Regional Information (surveys, etc.)

    Anderson, A. 1997. Prehistoric Polynesian impact on the New Zealand environment: Te Whenua Hou. In Kirch, P. V. and Hunt, T.L. (eds). Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands: Prehistoric Environment and Landscape Change, pp. 271-283. Yale Univeristy Press, New Haven and London.

    Archer, M. 1984. 1. Background. 1.13. Effects of humans on the Australian vertebrate fauna. InArcher, M. and Clayton, G. (eds). Vertebrate Zoogeography and Evolution in Australasia (Animals in Space and Time), pp.151-161. Hesperian PRess, Carlisle, Western Australia.

    Arredondo, O. 1995. Lista de las especies extinguidas de vertebrados halladas en las provincias orientales de Cuba. Garciana 24(15): 10-12.

    Burney, D. A., H. F. James, et al. 1997. Environmental change, extinction and human activity: evidence from caves in NW Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography 24(6): 755-767.

    Carlquist, S. J. 1980. Hawaii, A Natural History. Geology, Climate, Native Flora and Fauna Above the Shoreline. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Honolulu.

    Chazeau, J. 1993. Research on New Caledonian terrestrial fauna: achievements and prospects. Biodiversity Letters 1(3-4): 123-129.

    Cheke, A. S. 1987. An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates. In Diamond, A.W. (ed). Studies of Mascarene Island Birds, pp. 5-89. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London.

    Corlett, R. T. 1992. The ecological transformation of Singapore, 1819-1990. Journal of Biogeography 19(4): 411-420.

    Dewar, R. E. 1984. Extinctions in Madagascar: the loss of the subfossil fauna. In Martin, P.S. and Klein, R.G. (eds). Quaternary Extinctions, pp. 574-593. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

    Dewar, R. E. 1997. Were people responsible for the extinction of Madagascar's subfossils, and how will we ever know? InGoodman, Steven M. and Patterson, Bruce D. (eds). Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar, pp. 364-377. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

    Dodson, J. R. 1989. Late Pleistocene vegetation and environmental shifts in Australia and their bearing on faunal extinctions. Journal of Archaeological Science 16(2): 207-217.

    Goodman, S.M. and Patterson, B.D. (eds). 1997. Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

    Guntoro, S. 1996. Satwa langka di Bali. Biro Humas dan Protokol, Setwilda Tk. I Bali. [Denpasar].

    Harting, J. E. 1880. British Animals Extinct Within Historic Times: With Some Account of British Wild White Cattle. J.R. Osgood and Co., Boston.

    Kennedy, M. 1990. Australia's Endangered Species. The Extinction Dilemma. Simon and Schuster Australia, Brookvale, New South Wales.

    Kirch, P. and Hunt, T.L. (eds). 1997. Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands: Prehistoric Environmental and Landscape Change. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

    Kirch, P. V. 1996. Late Holocene human-induced modifications to a central Polynesian island ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93(11): 5296-5300.

    Komarov, B. 1980. The Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union. M.E. Sharpe, Inc., White Plains, N.Y.

    MacPhee, R. D. E. 1986. Environment, extinction, and Holocene vertebrate localities in southern Madagascar. National Geographic Research 2(4): 441-455.

    Markgraf, V. 1985. Late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in southern Patagonia. Science (4703): 1110-1112.

    Massey, J.G. 1995. Paradise lost? The extinction crisis in Hawaii. Association of Avian Veterinarians Main Conference Proceedings 1995: 153-155.

    McClung, R. M. and B. Hines. 1993. Lost Wild America: The Story of Our Extinct and Vanishing Wildlife. Linnet Books, Hamden, Conn.

    Mead, J.I. and Meltzer, D.J. 1985. Environments and Extinctions: Man in Late Glacial North America. Center for the Study of Early Man. Orono, Maine.

    Morton, S.R. 1990. The impact of European settlement on the vertebrate animals of arid Australia: a conceptual model. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 201-213.

    Moutou, F. 1983. Introduction dans les isles: l'exemple de l'Ile de la Reunion. Compte Rendu Des Seances De La Societe De Biogeographie 59(2): 201-211.

    Rolett, B. V. 1992. Faunal extinctions and depletions linked with prehistory and environmental change in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Journal of the Polynesian Society 101(1): 86-94.

    Steadman, D. W., G. K. Pregill, et al. 1984. Fossil vertebrates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: evidence for the Holocene human-caused extinctions in the West Indies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - Biological Sciences 81(14): 4448-4451.

    Steadman, D. W., T. W. Stafford, Jr., et al. 1991. Chronology of Holocene vetertebrate extinction in the Galapagos Islands. Quaternary Research 36(1): 126-133.

    Thomas, J. A. and M. G. Morris. 1995. Rates and patterns of extinction among British invertebrates. InLawton, J.H. and May, R.M. (eds). Extinction Rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York and Tokyo.

    Vigne, J. D. and J. A. Alcover. 1987. Incidence des relations historiques entre l'homme et l'animal dans la composition actuelle du peuplement amphibien, reptilien et mammalien des iles de mediterranee occidentale. Actes du Congres National des Societes Savantes Section des Sciences 110(2): 79-91.

    Weisler, M. I. 1995. Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56(1-2): 377-404.

    Whitney, G. G. 1500. An impoverished fauna. InWhitney, Gordon G. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America 1500 to Present, pp. 299-323. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne.

    Williams, J. D. and R. M. Nowak. 1986. Vanishing species in our own backyard: extinct fish and wildlife of the United States and Canada. In Kaufman, L. and Mallory, K. (eds). The Last Extinction, pp. 107-139. Published in cooperation with the New England Aquarium by the MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    Wilson, K. J. 1997. Extinct and introduced vertebrate species in New Zealand: a loss of biodistinctiveness and gain in biodiversity. Pacific Conservation Biology 3(3): 301-305.


    --Taxa-specific Information (surveys, etc.)

    Please Note! The references collected for the categories below do not include articles specific to a particular species' extinction (there are far too many to present them in a simple list) instead, only general articles have been compiled.

    Amphibians
    Birds
    Fishes
    Insects
    Mammals
    Mollusks
    Plants
    Reptiles

    --General Information

    Agenbroad, L.D., Mead, J.I. and Nelson, L.W. (eds). 1990. Megafauna and Man: Discovery of America's Heartland. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, Inc. and Northern Arizona University, Hot Springs, South Dakota and Flagstaff, Arizona.

    Agger, P. 1989. [The destruction of plant and animal species - a catastrophe]. Kaskelot 81: 18-31.

    Aitken, G. M. 1998. Extinction. Biology & Philosophy 13(3): 393-411.

    Atkinson, I. 1989. Introduced animals and extinctions. InWestern, D. and Pearl, M.C. (eds). Conservation for the Twenty First Century, pp. 54-75. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Atkinson, I. A. E. 1996. Introductions of wildlife as a cause of species extinctions. Wildlife Biology 2(3): 135-141.

    Brood, K. 1984. [Are twilight creatures going to take the place of mankind?]. Fauna Och Flora 79(2): 81-86.

    Burney, D. A. and R. D. E. MacPhee. 1988. Mysterious island. Natural History 97(7): 46-55.

    Burney, D. A. 1993. Recent animal extinctions: recipes for disaster. American Scientist 81(6): 530-541.

    Cairns, J., Jr. 1988. Can the global loss of species be stopped? Speculations in Science and Technology 11(3): 189-196.

    Carpenter, J. W. 1983. Species decline: a perspective on extinction, recovery, and propagation. Zoo Biology 2(3): 165-178.

    Chaloner, W.G. and Hallam, A. (eds). 1989. Evolution and extinction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B325: 239-488.

    Cohen, A. S. 1994. Extinction in ancient lakes: biodiversity crises and conservation 40 years after J.L. Brooks. Ergebnisse Der Limnologie 44: 451-479.

    Collar, N.J. 1998. Extinction by assumption; or, the Romeo error on Cebu. Oryx 32(4): 239-244.

    Diamond, J. M. 1982. Man the exterminator. Nature 298(5877): 787-789.

    Diamond, J. M. 1984. Historic extinctions: a Rosetta Stone for understanding prehistoric extinctions. In Martin, P.S.and Klein, R.G. (eds). Quaternary Extinctions, pp. 824-862. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

    Diamond, J. M. 1984. 'Normal' extinctions of isolated populations. InNitecki, M.H. (ed). Extinctions, pp. 191-246. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

    Diamond, J. M. 1987. Extant unless proven extinct? Or, extinct unless proven extant? Conservation Biology 1(1): 77-79.

    Diamond, J.M. 1989. The present, past and future of human-caused extinctions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B325: 469-477.

    Diamond, J. 1989. Overview of recent extinctions. In Western, D. and Pearl, M.C. (eds). Conservation for the Twenty First Century, pp. 37-41. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Diamond, J. 1990. How many species will still exist 50 years from now? Verhandlungen Der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 83: 221-225.

    Ehrlich, P. R. and A. H. Ehrlich. 1983. Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Ballantine Books, New York.

    Ehrlich, P. R. 1986. Extinction: what is happening now and what needs to be done. InElliott, D.K. (ed). Dynamics of Extinction, pp. 157-164. John Wiley and Sons. New York, Chichester.

    Eldredge, N. 1991. The Miner's Canary: Unraveling the Mysteries of Extinction. Prentice Hall Press, New York, London.

    Elliott, D.K. (ed). Dynamics of Extinction. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

    Erickson, J. 1991. Dying Planet. The Extinction of Species. TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania.

    Fenger, M.A., Miller, E.H., Johnson, J.F. and Williams E.J.R (eds). 1993. Our Living Legacy: Proceedings of a Symposium on Biological Diversity. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia.

    Frankham, R. 1998. Inbreeding and Extinction: Island Populations. Conservation Biology 12(3): 665-670.

    Frankham, R. and K. Ralls. 1998. Inbreeding leads to extinction. Nature 392: 441-442.

    Gorke, M. 1998. Species extinction and ethics. The limits of the anthropocentric outlook. Anzeiger Des Vereins Thueringer Ornithologen 3(2): 93-102.

    Goudie, A. 1990. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. Basil Blackwell Ltd, Oxford.

    Guthrie, R. D. 1990. Late Pleistocene faunal revolution - a new perspective on the extinction debate. InAgenbroad, L.D., Mead, J.I. and Nelson, L.W. (eds). Megafauna and Man: Discovery of America's Heartland, pp. 42-53. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, Inc. and Northern Arizona University, Hot Springs, South Dakota and Flagstaff, Arizona.

    Hahn, H. and O. Hahn. 1990. Notruf aus der Arche: ein Alarmierender Report uber die Vernichtung der Belebten Natur. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.

    Hoage, R. J. 1985. Animal Extinctions. What Everyone Should Know. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.

    Hopkins, P. and M. Blanc. 1982. L'extinction des especes aujourd'hui. Recherche 133: 662-665.

    IUCN/UNEP, Fitter, R. and Fitter, M. 1987. The Road to Extinction. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

    Kaiser, H. E. 1988. Die Gattungsspezifitat des Aussterbens. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 41(5): 183-184.

    Kaufman, L., K. Mallory, et al. 1986. The Last Extinction. Published in cooperation with the New England Aquarium by the MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    Kerr, J. T. and D. J. Currie. 1995. Effects of human activity on global extinction risk. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1528-1538.

    Lande, R. 1998. Anthropogenic, ecological and genetic factors in extinction and conservation. Researches on Population Ecology 40(3): 259-269.

    Leakey, R.E. and R. Lewin. 1995. The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind. New York, Doubleday.

    MacPhee, R.D.E. and P. A. Marx. 1997. The 40,000-year plague: humans, hyperdisease, and first-contact extinctions. In Goodman, Steven M. and Patterson, Bruce D. (eds). Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar, pp. 169-217. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

    MacPhee, R.D.E. (ed). 1999. Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

    Magin, C. D., T. H. Johnson, et al. 1994. Species extinctions, endangerment and captive breeding. InOlney, P.J.S., Mace, G.M. and Feistner, A.T.C. (eds). Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals, pp. 3-31. Chapman and Hall, London, Glasgow etc

    Mann, C.C. 1991. Extinction: Are ecologists crying wolf? Science 253: 736-738.

    Marshall, L. G. 1984. Who killed Cock Robin? An investigation of the extinction controversy. InMartin, P.S. and Klein, R.G. (eds). Quaternary Extinctions, pp. 785-806. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

    Martin, P. S. and R. G. Klein. 1984. Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

    Martin, P. S. 1990. 40,000 years of extinctions on the 'planet of doom'. Global and Planetary Change 82(1-2): 187-201.

    McNeely, J. A. 1990. [The sinking ark: the worldwide loss of biodiversity.]. InHekstra, G.P. and van Linden, F.J.M. (eds). [The Flora and Fauna Under Chemical Pressure. Report of the National Symposium Organized by the Netherlands Ecological Association], pp. 5-25. Pudoc, Wageningen.

    Mundy, P.J. (ed). 1984. Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Extinction Alternative. Endangered Wildlife Trust, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Myers, N. 1978. Disappearing legacy. The earth's vanishing genetic heritage. Nature Canada 7(4): 41-54.

    Myers, N. 1979. The Sinking Ark. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

    Myers, N. and E. S. Ayensu. 1983. Reduction of biological diversity and species loss. Ambio 12(2): 72-74.

    Myers, N. 1985. A look at the present extinction spasm and what it means for the future evolution of species. In Hoage, R.J. (ed). Animal Extinctions. What everyone Should Know, pp. 47-57. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.

    Myers, N. 1988. Mass extinction - profound problem, splendid opportunity. Oryx 22(10): 205-210.

    Myers, N. 1990. Mass extinctions: what can the past tell us about the present and the future? Global and Planetary Change 82(1-2): 175-185.

    Myers, N. 1993. Questions of mass extinction. Biodiversity and Conservation 2(1): 2-17.

    Myers, N. 1994. Global biodiversity 2. Losses. InMeffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. (eds). Principles of Conservation Biology, pp. 110-140. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

    Nee, S. and R. M. May. 1997. Extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 278(5338): 692-694.

    Nitecki, M. H. 1984. Extinctions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London

    Norton, B.G. (ed). 1986. The Preservation of Species. The Value of Biological Diversity. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

    Olson, S. L. 1989. Extinction on islands: man as a catastrophe. InWestern, D. and Pearl, M.C. (eds). Conservation for the Twenty First Century, pp. 50-53. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Pimm, S. 1972. Seeds of our own destruction. New Scientist 146(1972): 31-35.

    Pimm, S. L., G. J. Russell, et.al. 1995. The future of biodiversity. Science 269(5222): 347-350.

    Pimm, S. L. 1996. Lessons from a kill. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(9): 1059-1067.

    Pratt, J. R. and J. Cairns, Jr. 1992. Ecological risks associated with the extinction of species. InCairns, J., Jr, Niederlehner, B.R. and Orvos, D.R. (eds). Predicting Ecosystem Risk, pp. 93-117. Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Princeton.

    Quammen, David. 1996. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. Scribner, New York.

    Rapoport, E. H. 1991. Vida em extincao. Ciencia Hoje 12(No. 70): 50-53.

    Raup, D. M. 1991. Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? New Scientist 131(September 14): 46-49.

    Raup, D. M. 1993. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

    Raven, P. H. 1990. Biology in an age of extinction: what is our responsibility? InDudley, Elizabeth C. (ed). The Unity of Evolutionary Biology: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, pp. 25-34. Dioscorides Press, Portland Oregon.

    Raven, P. H. 1993. Ecology and species extinction: a global perspective. InKeeley, J.E. (ed). Interface Between Ecology and Land Development in California, pp. 1-6. Southern California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles.

    Reid, W. V. 1992. Conserving life's diversity: can the extinction crisis be stopped? Environmental Science and Technology 26(6): 1090-1095.

    Schiotz, A. 1987. The biology of extinction. InFitter, R. and Fitter, M. (eds). The Road to Extinction. Problems of Categorizing the Status of Taxa Threatened with Extinction, pp. 68-70. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge.

    Scudder, G.G.E. 1993. Biodiversity over time. In Fenger, M.A. Miller, E.H., Johnson, J.F. and Williams, E.J.R (eds). Our Living Legacy: Proceedings of a Symposium on Biological Diversity, pp. 109-126. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia.

    Silverberg, R. and J. Hnizdovsky. 1970. The Auk, the Dodo, and the Oryx: Vanished and Vanishing Creatures. Crowell, New York.

    Solow, A.R. 1993. Inferring extinction from sighting data. Ecology 74(3): 962-964.

    Soule, M. 1983. What do we really know about extinction? Biological Conservation Series 1: 111-124.

    Steadman, D. W. 1991. Extinction of species: past, present, and future. InWyman, R.L. (ed). Global Climate Change and Life on Earth, pp. 156-169. Routledge (Chapman and Hall) New York and London.

    Vermeij, G. J. 1986. The biology of human caused extinction. InNorton, B.G. (ed). The Preservation of Species. The Value of Biological Diversity, pp. 28-49. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

    Vermeij, G. J. 1993. Biogeography of recently extinct marine species: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 7(2): 391-397.

    Vitousek, P. M., H. A. Mooney, et al. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277(5325): 494-499.

    Ward, R. D. 1994. The End of Evolution: On Mass Extinctions and the Preservation of Biodiversity. Bantam Books, New York.

    Westing, A. H. 1981. A world in balance. Environmental Conservation 8(3): 177-183.


    --Extinction Rates and Modelling

    Please Note! There are numerous articles about extinction rates and modelling, only a short listing of general studies is provided below.

    Barrett, S. 1993. Optimal economic growth and the conservation of biological diversity. In Barbier, E.B. (ed). Economics and Ecology: New Frontiers and Sustainable Development, pp. 130-145. Chapman and Hall, London, Glasgow, etc.

    Boecklen, W.J. and D. Simberloff. 1986. Area-based extinction models in conservation. In Elliott, D.K. (ed). Dynamics of Extinction, pp. 247.276. John Wiley and Sons. New York, Chichester, etc.

    Burgman, M.A., H.R. Akcakaya, and S.S. Loew. 1988. The use of extinction models for species conservation. Biological Conservation 43(1): 9-25.

    Burkey, T. V. 1995. Extinction rates in archipelagoes: implications for populations in fragmented habitats. Conservation Biology 9(3): 527-541.

    Case, T.J. 1989. The variances of island extinction rates. American Naturalist 133(5): 741-749.

    Crosby, M.J., et al. 1994. Predicting avian extinction rates. Biodiversity Letters 2(6): 182-185.

    Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3): 603-610.

    Ferson, S. and M.A. Burgman. 1990. The dangers of being few: demographic risk analysis for rare species extinction. New York State Museum Bulletin 471: 129-132.

    Gaston, K. J. 1994. Estimating extinction rates: Joseph Banks' legacy. Trends In Ecology and Evolution 9(3): 80-82.

    Gilpin, M. E. and M. E. Soule. 1986. Minimum viable populations: processes of species extinction. In Soule, M.E. (ed). Conservation Biology. The Science of Scarcity and Diversity, pp. 19-34. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

    Hengeveld, R. 1989. Caught in an ecological web. Oikos54(1): 15-22.

    Heywood, V. H. 1992. Species extinctions in tropical forests. In Whitmore, T.C. and Sayer, J.A. (eds). Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction, pp. 92-117. Chapman and Hall, London, New York etc.

    Heywood, V. H., G. M. Mace, et al. 1994. Uncertainties in extinction rates. Nature 368(6467): 105.

    Hughes, J.B., G.C. Daily, and P.R. Ehrlich. 1997. Population diversity: its extent and extinction. Science 278(5338): 689-692.

    Lawton, J.H. and R.M. May (eds). 1994. Estimating extinction rates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B344(1307): 1-104.

    Lawton, J.H. and R.M. May. (eds). 1995. Extinction Rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

    Martin, P. S. 1986. Refuting Late Pleistocene extinction models. InElliott, D.K. (ed). Dynamics of Extinction, pp. 107-130. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

    Myers, N. 1989. Extinction rates past and present. Bioscience 39(1): 39-41.

    Myers, N. 1994. Global biodiversity 2. Losses. InMeffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. (eds). Principles of Conservation Biology, pp. 110-140. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

    Myers, N. 1988. Tropical forests and their species. Going going ...? In Wilson, E.O. (ed.) Biodiversity, pp. 28-35. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

    Myers, N. 1989. A major extinction spasm: predictable or inevitable? In Western, D. and Pearl, M.C. (eds). Conservation for the Twenty First Century, pp. 42-49. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Nott, M.P., E. Rogers, and S. Pimm. 1995. Modern extinctions in the kilo-death range. Current Biology 5(1): 14-17.

    Reed, J.M. 1996. Using statistical probability to increase confidence of inferring species extinction. Conservation Biology 10(4): 1283-1285.

    Reid, W.V. 1992. How many species will there be? In Whitmore, T.C. and Sayer, J.A. (eds). Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction, pp. 55-73. Chapman and Hall, London, New York, etc.

    Richman, A.D., T.J. Case, and T.D. Schwaner. 1988. Natural and unnatural extinction rates of reptiles on islands. American Naturalist 131(5): 611-630.

    Simberloff, D. 1992. Do species-area curves predict extinction in fragmented forest? In Whitmore, T.C. and Sayer, J.A. (eds). Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction, pp. 75-89. Chapman & Hall, London, New York, etc.

    Smith, F.D.M., et al. 1993. Estimating extinction rates. Nature 364(6437): 494-496.

    Smith, F.D.M., et al. 1993. How much do we know about the current extinction rate? Trends In Ecology and Evolution 8(10): 375-378.

    Soule, M.E. (ed). 1986. Conservation Biology. The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

    Soule, M.E. (ed). 1987. Viable Populations for Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, etc.

    Spellerberg, I.F. 1996. Changes in biological diversity. In Spellerberg, I.F. (ed). Conservation biology, pp. 13-24. Longman, Harlow, Essex, 1996.

    Stork, N.E. 1997. Measuring global biodiversity and its decline. In Reaka-Kudla, M. L.; Wilson, D. E. and Wilson, E.O. (eds).Biodiversity 2: Understanding and Protecting our Biological Resources, pp. 41-68. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.

    Tilman, D., et al. 1994. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371(6492): 65-66.

    Wilcox, B.A. 1986. Extinction models and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1(2): 46-47.

    Whitmore, T.C. and Sayer, J.A. (eds). 1992. Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction. Chapman and Hall, London, New York etc.

    Wright, D.H. 1987. Estimating human effects on global extinction. International Journal of Biometeorology 31(4): 293-299.


    Collection Catalogs

    Fisher, C. T. 1981. Specimens of extinct, endangered or rare birds in the Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool. Bulletin of The British Ornithologists' Club 101(1): 276-285.

    Gill, B. J. 1984. Specimens of rare or recently extinct New Zealand non-passerine birds in the Auckland Institute and Museum. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 21(1): 77-82.

    Gillette, J. and J. A. Bartle. 1982. Catalogue of anatomical specimens of living or recently extinct birds in the National Museum of New Zealand (NMNZ). National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 5: 1-18.

    Hahn, Paul. 1963. Where is that Vanished Bird? An Index to the Known Specimens of the Extinct and Near Extinct North American Species. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

    Knox, A. G., M. P. Walters, et al. 1994. Extinct and Endangered Birds in the Collections of the Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1:292.

    Lucas, Frederic A. 1891. Animals Recently Extinct or Threatened with Extermination, as Represented in the Collections of the U.S. National Museum. Government Publishing Office, Washington D.C.

    Neufeldt, I. A. 1978. Extinct birds in the collection of the Zoological Institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 76: 101-110.

    Schifter, H. 1996. [Preserved extinct parrots in the collection of the Vienna Natural History Museum.] Papageien 9(1): 21-24.


    Standards for Extinction Assessment

    CREO is in the process of creating standards for the assessment of recent extinctions. Specifically, we are developing uniform criteria that researchers can use to evaluate extinction evidence.

    Colyvan, M., et al. 1999. The treatment of uncertainty and the structure of the IUCN threatened species categories. Biological Conservation 89(3): 245-249.

    IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland, Switzerland.

    IUCN/UNEP, Fitter, R. and Fitter, M. 1987. The Road to Extinction. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

    King, W. F. 1988. Extant unless proven extinct: the international legal precedent. Conservation Biology 2(4): 395-397.

    Mace, G. M. and R. Lande. 1991. Assessing extinction threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN threatened species categories. Conservation Biology 5(2): 148-157.

    Mace, G. M. 1994. Classifying threatened species: means and ends. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions - Biological Sciences1994(344): 91-97.

    Mace, G. M. 1995. Classification of threatened species and its role in conservation planning. In Lawton, J.H. and May, R.M. (eds). Extinction Rates, pp 197-213. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York and Tokyo.


    Serials

    There are no serials devoted exclusively to publishing research on extinctions, although we have several ideas for CREO publications that could fill this gap.

    Indices and Abstracts

    For articles about extinction in the animal kingdom, the best source is the index Zoological Record. To find articles on plant extinctions, try both Biological Abstracts and Excerpta Botanica.


    Organizations

  • The Species Survival Commission

    The Species Survival Commission (SSC), one of the global commissions of the IUCN - World Conservation Union , compiles information about extinction risks for various plant and animal species of the world. This information is published in IUCN Red Lists,and includes lists of species thought to be extinct.

    Information compiled by the SSC is drawn from a number of places, including experts on SSC specialist groups, and from other conservation organizations such as BirdLife International, National Wildlife Federation, The Nature Conservancy, World Wide Fund for Nature, and several botanic gardens (to name a few).

  • The World Conservation Monitoring Centre

    The World Conservation Monitoring Centre is the data management partner for the Species Survival Commission, and "manages the database from which the IUCN Red List is generated" (IUCN, 1996).

    In 1992 the WCMC also produced their own list of extinct species, published in:

    World Conservation Monitoring Center (1992) Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's living resources. Chapman and Hall, London xx + 594 pp.

    The WCMC is a sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the IUCN - World Conservation Union, and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and is currently being reconstituted as the new UNEP world biodiversity information and assessment center. (For further clarification: UNEP is a United Nations agency, so it is an intergovernmental organization. IUCN is an international organization with membership that includes both government and non-governmental organizations. WWF is an international non-governmental conservation organization.)

  • The Nature Conservancy

    The Nature Conservancy is a non-governmental conservation organization, but like SSC, they have an interest in producing lists of species according to "conservation status rank." TNC is in the process of making this listing available through a database.


    Web Sites

    Extinction and Depletion from Over-exploitation --Chapter 3 of a hypertext book about biodiversity and conservation. This book is by Peter J. Bryant and was created for an online course at University of California at Irvine.

    Hawaii's Extinct Species --A listing of extinct plants, birds, insects, and snails from Hawaii, sponsored by the Bishop Museum.

    A History of Extinction --Information about extinction rates and humanity's contribution to extinction, sponsored by the World Resources Institute.

    Humans and Other Catastrophes -- A web site developed from a symposium about Late Pleistocene extinctions. This symposium was held at the American Museum of Natural History in 1997.

    The Problem of Species Extinction --Information about species' extinctions sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia.

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